Adult cardiac surgeries
- CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft): It is done using the beating heart surgery technique, where arterial graft is done on a beating heart with or without using a heart-lung machine. The graft is usually taken from the patient’s leg vein (saphenous vein) or artery inside the chest (internal mammary artery) to create a new route for oxygen rich blood to reach the heart. Grafts last for about 10-12 years. A heart-lung machine is used to circulate and oxygenate blood during the surgery. In the conventional method of surgery, a 10-12” long incision is made through the breast bone. The latest technique is the minimally invasive approach done through a laparoscope which reduces blood loss and shortens hospital stay. A heart-lung machine is not required for the minimally invasive approach. The laparoscopic method is preferred when the number of blocks is one or two.
- Surgery for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation and post infarct ventricular septal defects
- Valve repair and replacement is done when heart valves are damaged or diseased and do not function properly causing the heart muscle to work harder to pump the blood through the valve. The valves may not open fully or may have problems closing. Replacement is done with a prosthetic valve, which may be made from man-made materials or a biological valve taken from the pig, cow or human donors. The advantage of the man-made valve is that it lasts longer but requires long term use of anti-coagulants. The type of valve is decided based on age, occupation, size of the valve, your heart functions and ability to withstand anti-coagulants. Valve repair or replacement can be done by the conventional method or minimally invasive approach. A heart-lung machine is used to keep circulation of blood going.
- Redo surgery for valve replacement and CABG
- DOR operation for left ventricular aneurysms
- GUCH (grow--up congenital heart) operations are done for those who have congenital heart disease and have crossed adolescence without any symptoms.
Paediatric cardiac surgery
- Newborn heart surgery for babies less than 1 month of age
- Open heart surgery for congenital heart defects like holes in the heart and great vessels (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
- Blocks in the blood flow (aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, coarctation of the aorta)
- Complex defects (blue babies) like single ventricle, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great arteries (TGA) etc.
- Cosmetic approaches for congenital heart surgery: minimally invasive cardiac surgery
- Cath-based interventions and assessment for atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus and device closure
- Bentall operation for ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic valve disease. This is a cardiac surgery involving replacement of the aortic valve, aortic root and ascending aorta with re-implantation of the coronary arteries into a composite graft.
- Carotid endarterectomy along with CABG is done when atherosclerosis blocks both the coronary artery which supplies blood to the brain and coronary artery that supplies blood to the heart.
- Resection of cardiac myxomas
- Peripheral vascular surgeries for ischemic limbs like aorta femoral bypass, femoro popliteal / distal bypass grafting, axillo femoral bypass grafting are done as limb saving procedures and to reduce claudication pain and to help ischemic ulcers heal.
- In symptomatic varicose veins, endovascular laser therapy is being done routinely as a minimally invasive procedure with good results and in reducing symptoms and helps venous ulcers heal.
- On dialysis in renal failure patients, vascular access is created for haemodialysis. Creation of arterio venous fistulas, AV grafts with PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tube grafts is done with good results.